Fact About Country


Nepal lies on the southern slopes of Himalayas between China and India. In the north the mountains include the tallest mountain in the world Mt. EVEREST. The central upland area cut through by fertile valleys and along the border with India are cultivated areas.

Nepal has a long and important history of Buddhism tradition. Sakya muni (The lord Buddha) was born in southern Nepal around 560 B.S.The most common image of Nepal outside its borders are the skilled guides and mountaineers known as Sherpa. Read about Sherpas

Nepal is blessed with an incredible diversity of natural beauty and a consequent opulence of cultural varieties. Due to difficult terrain and insufficient facilities of transport and communication, several fascinating areas of Nepal are still difficult of access for time conscious and comfort visitors. Most major city have basic amenities like road and air network, electricity, communication and accommodation facilities

Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. The country was frequently called the Gorkha Kingdom, the source of the term “Gurkha” used for Nepalese soldiers.

After 1800, the heirs of Prithvi Narayan Shah proved unable to maintain firm political control over Nepal. A period of internal turmoil followed, heightened by Nepal’s defeat in a war with the British from 1814 to 1816. Stability was restored after 1846 when the Rana family gained power, entrenched itself through hereditary prime ministers, and reduced the monarch to a figurehead. The Rana regime, a tightly centralized autocracy, pursued a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences. This policy helped Nepal maintain its national independence during the colonial era, but it also impeded the country’s economic development.

In 1950, King Tribhuvan, a direct descendant of Prithvi Narayan Shah, fled his “palace prison” to newly independent India, touching off an armed revolt against the Rana administration. This allowed the return of the Shah family to power and, eventually, the appointment of a non-Rana as prime minister. A period of quasi-constitutional rule followed, during which the monarch, assisted by the leaders of fledgling political parties, governed the country. During the 1950s, efforts were made to frame a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative form of government, based on a British model.

Head of state: President President Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Type of Government: Republic

Head of government: Prime Minister Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba

judicial: Supreme Court, 11 appellate courts, 75 district courts

Subdivisions: 7 provinces, 75 districts and 744 local units

National Day: Democracy Day, Falgun 7 (mid-February)

Flag: Two blue-edged red triangles pointing away from staff, with symbols of the sun and moon in white.

Main Political Parties:

Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), United Marxist Leninist (UML), Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), Nepali Congress Party; Nepali Congress Democratic, Nepal Sadbhawana Party, Rastriya Jana Morcha, Maoist

Nepal experiences 4 seasons
Spring (Mar – May)
Summer (Jun – Aug)
Autumn (Sep – Nov)
Winter (Dec – Feb)

The climate is varied ranging from the sub-tropical Terai to the cool dry temperate and alpine climate in the northern Himalayan ranges. In the Terai, the hottest part of the country, summer temperatures may rise as high as 40 º. The climate is hot and humid. In the midmountain region, the summer climate is mild with temperatures around 25º – 27º. The winter temperatures range from 7º to 23º in the Terai and subzero to 12º in the mountain regions and valleys. The northern Himalayan region has an alpine climate. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant equable climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19º – 27º and 2º – 12º respectively.


Nepal can be divided into three main geographical regions:

Himalayan Region

The altitude of this region ranges between 4877 meters and 8848 meters with the now line running around 488848 meters. It includes 8 of the existing 14 summits in the world which exceed the altitude of 8000 meters. They are: (1) Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) – 8848 m (2) Kangchenjunga – 8586 m, (3) Lhotse – 8516 m, (4) Makalu – 8463 m, (5) Cho Oyo – 8201 m, (6) Dhaulagiri – 8167 m, (7) Manaslu – 8163 m, and (8) Annapurna – 8091 m.

Mountain Region

This region accounts for about 64 percent of total land area. The Mahabharat range that rises upto 4877 meters forms it. To its south lies the lower Churia range whose altitude varies from 610 meters to 1524 meters.

Terai Region

The lowland Terai region, which has a width of about 26 to 32 kilometers and an altitude maximum of 305 meters, occupies about 17 percent of total land area of the country. Kechanakawal, the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 70 meters lies in Jhapa District of the eastern Terai.

All this adds up one interesting fact that there is no seasonal constraint on travelling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when the winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views. Winter days often begin in mist, which can last until noon. Then suddenly, as if by magic, the fog disappears bringing in to views snowy peaks, glistening white and fresh against the large blue sky.

Country Statistics
Official Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Official language: Nepali

 Total Population

26, 494, 504 (June 22, 2011


12, 849,   041 (48.5%)


13,   645,463 (51.5%)

Sex ratio (Male per 100 Female)


Population increase rate

1.35% per   annum

Total Households


Average Household size

4.88   persons

Female Headed households


Population Density

180 per   sq. km

Urban Population

17.7% of   the total population

Working age population (15-59)


Mobile phone users


Literacy rate






Average life expectancy*






(* World Health Statistics 2012,   WHO)
Total Fertility rate **


Infant mortality rate**

46 (per   1000 live birth)

Child mortality rate**

9 (per   1000 live birth)

Maternal mortality rate**

281 (per   100,000 live birth)

(** Nepal Demographic and health survey 2006)